Wednesday, October 15, 2008

University of Nanking

The University of Nanking was a Christian university founded in 1888 in Nanjing, China. It was originally named the Nanking University, the first school officially named University in China.


The Nanking University was founded in 1888 by C.H. Fouler. Initially there were three faculties: liberal arts, divinity and medicine. In 1910, The Nanking University merged The Union Christian College and changed the name to Private University of Nanking , and was registered with the New York State Education Department.

In 1951, Ginling College merged into University of Nanking. In 1952, University of Nanking was merged with Nanjing University .


*J. C. Ferguson
*G.A. Stuart
*A. J. Bowen
*Chen Yuguang
*Li Fangxun

Notable alumni

*Ching Chun Li, geneticist, Chairman of American Society of Human Genetics.
*Choh Hao Li, biologist, biochemist. His achievements include isolating and synthesizing the human pituitary growth hormone. He received many honors including Lasker Award.
*Choh-Ming Li, educationist, economist.
*Francois Cheng, writer, poet. A "Bridge Between Eastern and Western Culture".
*T. C. Tso, agriculturalist, tobacco scientist.
*Te-Tzu Chang, agriculturalist. Member of Pontifical Academy of Sciences . He receives Tyler Prize in 1999.
*Thome H. Fang, philosopher.
*W. B. Pettus, educator.
*Wu Teh Yao, educationist, politics scholar.
*Zhang Zhiwen, agriculturist, Vice Director General of FAO of United Nations.
*Charles W. Woodworth, Professor Emeritus and founder of the Entomology Division U.C. Berkeley was a lecturer in Entomology during his sabbatical in 1918. He was there then again between 1921-4. See the C. W. Woodworth Award.
*Pearl S. Buck, writer.
*Zou Bingwen, agriculturist, the Vice Chairman of Organising Committee of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nanking

The of is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in China. It was erected as the of Nanking in 1659 by Pope Alexander VII, and promoted to a diocese by Pope Alexander VII on April 10, 1690. However, the diocese was demoted to the Apostolic Vicariate of Kiangnan on January 21, 1856 by Pope Pius IX, and its name was later changed to the Apostolic Vicariate of Kiangsu on August 8, 1921 and to the Vicariate Apostolic of Nanking on May 1, 1922. Pope Pius XII elevated it on April 11, 1946 to the rank of a , with the of , , , and .

The archdiocese's and thus seat of its archbishop is the also known as the Shigu Road church. There has been no Archbishop of Nanking since the death of on August 16, 1978, because of the irregular relationships between the and the Holy See.

List of of Nanking

*Ignace Cotolendi
*Gregory Luo Wen-zao,
*Cayetano Pires Pireira,
*André-Pierre Borgniet,
*Adrien-Hyppolyte Languillat,
*Valentin Garnier,
*Jean-Baptiste Simon,
*Próspero París,
*Auguste Haouisée,
*Paul Yü Pin

Pukou District

Pukou , Jiangsu, China a city district of the City of Nanjing directly northwest across the Yangtze River from Nanjing.

Formerly the city at the southern terminus of the Tianjin-Pukou Railway. Railcars had to be ferried aross the river until it was bridged in 1968.

This district was the birthplace of celebrated Chinese historian Sima Qian in c.1213 AD.

Organic Food Development Center

The Organic Food Development Center is an organic certification organization in China. It was founded in 1994 and is based in Nanjing. It is a branch of China's State Environmental Protection Administration, or SEPA. It was certified by the in 2002.

Nol Lee

No?l Lee is an American classical pianist and composer living in Paris, France.

He studied music in Lafayette, Indiana, then attended Harvard University, studying with Walter Piston, Irving Fine, and Tillman Merritt. Following World War II, he traveled to Paris where he studied music with Nadia Boulanger and was a friend of Douglas Allanbrook. He has composed orchestral, chamber, piano, vocal, and film music. In addition, he has completed several unfinished piano works by Franz Schubert, and composed cadenzas for piano concertos by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven.

As a pianist, he has has toured on six continents and recorded 198 LPs and CDs since 1955, particularly of Schubert , Debussy, Ravel, Charles Ives, Bartok, Stravinsky, Aaron Copland and Elliott Carter. Thirteen of these have received a Grand Prix du Disque.

Lee has served visiting professor at Brandeis University, Cornell University, and Dartmouth College.

He received numerous awards throughout his career, including from the American Academy of Arts and Letters for his creative work; and from France, in 1998, the grade of Commandeur de l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres, and, in 1999, from the city of Paris, the Grand Prix de la Musique.

Nanjing Television Broadcast Group

Nanjing Broadcast Television Station, the is a television network in the Nanjing, China area. It is the owner of the Nanjing Broadcasting Network and Nanjing Radio.

Nanjing Radio

Nanjing Radio , is a family of radio stations that serve the Nanjing China area. It is also associated with the Nanjing Television Broadcast Group.

External references


List of Nanjing radio stations

Comprehensive News Channel
Education Channel
Film/Television Channel
Literature Channel
Lifestyle Channel
Kids Channel
Nanjing News Channel
Nanjing Economy Channel
Nanjing Sports Channel
Nanjing Music Channel
Nanjing Traffic Channel

Nanjing Incident

The Nanjing Incident , not to be confused with the Nanking Massacre, occurred during the first phase of the starting on March 21st 1927 and going through the 23rd. As Kuomintang troops neared and entered the city, which had many foreign residents, the Kuomintang troops targeted and looted foreign properties, doing much damage and killing and injuring many foreigners. Western and Japanese warships on the river responded by shelling Chinese forces in an effort to stop the looting of the city.

Chiang Kai-shek and his "moderate" wing of the Kuomintang blamed the outrages on communist elements in the army, an explanation which the Japanese and many westerners were very ready to accept, although there is no good evidence to support this.

Foreign outrage was strong but the Americans and Japanese in particular wanted to avoid action against Chiang that would weaken his hand against the communists, whom they feared far more. Kijuro Shidehara, then the Japanese Foreign Minister, was criticized by many in Japan for this "weak" policy.


Before the Nanjing Incident, Chinese warlord Zhang Zongchang occupied the city of Nanjing. As the Hongyou Army of Kuomintang started their march to Nanjing as part of Kuomintang’s , on March 23rd, Zhang Zongchang retreated out of the city walls and headed towards Xia Guan area of Nanjing, where he immediately fled North across the Yangtze River. On that night, Zhang Zongchang’s remaining troops who were not able to flee across the river looted two foreigners and two abandoned mansions in the city.

On the morning of March 24th, initial elements of the Hongyou Army reached Nanjing. Initially, they questioned each foreign Consul if they were hiding any warlord troops. When answered no, the troops left the Consul. Around 7 AM that morning, the rest of the Hongyou Army reached the city. The 2nd, 6th, and 40th detachments of the Hongyou Army successfully took of the entire city without any retaliation.

At 8 AM, large-scale looting of foreign properties started, lasting until 5 PM that day. Targets were foreign Consuls, churches, schools, businesses, hospitals, and private property. University of Nanking’s vice president John Elias Williams and one of Aurora University’s teacher were both shot dead. During the raid, British and Japanese Consuls were the main targets. Bertram Giles the British Consul-General was injured by gunfire. A representative in the Japanese Consul, who was sick in bed, was also shot at, but was not hit.

At 3 PM that day, Davis of the Consul sent telegrams to American and British ships requesting help. As a result, British cruisers started shelling the city of Nanjing. Commander Cheng Qian ordered a stop to the looting and asked the Red Cross to communicate with the British and American fleet to stop the shelling. One hour later, the shelling from the British stopped. But the looting did not stop until one hour after that at 5 PM.

At the end of the day, 2 British, 1 American, 1 French, 1 Japanese, and 1 Italian were dead. 3 American, 2 British and Japanese were wounded. A sailor on the British Cruiser was hit by return fire from the Hongyou Army and was killed. Around 36 to 39 people were killed in total, 10 wounded.

Nanjing Broadcasting Network

Nanjing Broadcasting Network, is a television network in the Nanjing, China area.


Jiankang , formerly known as Jianye until Eastern Jin Dynasty , was an ancient city in China. During the Sui Dynasty Jiankang was renamed Jiangning and during the Ming Dynasty was renamed Nanjing.

Ruins of Jiankang's city walls can still be seen today. The city had been a capital city of the Six Dynasties, namely:
# Eastern Wu
# Eastern Jin Dynasty
# Liu-Song Dynasty
# Qi Dynasty
# Liang Dynasty
# Chen Dynasty

Xu Song in Tang Dynasty wrote a book, ''Jiankang Shilu'' , that provides a historical account of Jiankang, which gave rise to the term "Six Dynasties".

City Wall of Nanjing

The City Wall of Nanjing was designed by after he founded the Ming Dynasty and established Nanjing as the capital 600 years ago. To consolidate his sovereignty and keep out invaders, he adopted the suggestions of advisor Zhu Sheng to build a higher , to collect grains and to postpone the coronation. Then, he started to build the city wall. It took 21 years for the project, which involved 200,000 laborers to move 7 million cubic meters of earth.


The first Ming emperor was proclaimed in 1368 and a great deal of preparation was done prior to this to have an imperial city and all the imperial trappings ready in time. The name of the city was changed again to Yingtianfu . A "new city" was built to the east of the old one to be used as a new palace or "forbidden" city. This city was laid out in much the same pattern as Beijing; indeed Nanjing’s was the pattern for Beijing’s Forbidden City.

In expanding the walls, it appears the Hongwu Emperor intended initially to simply add a bulge to the existing walls and encompass the New City to the east. The main north gate would have been the Drum Tower. However, a decision was made to bring Lion Hill to the northwest into the city defenses for strategic reasons, and this almost doubled the area the walls would encompass. In addition to the surviving walls of stone and brick, an outwall was built along the river and to the south as an additional defensive measure. Old maps show that there were close to twenty walls in this rammed earth wall. This outwall is long gone, but the names of the gates survive as local place names. Part of the wall on the south shore of Xuanwu Lake was built on the foundations of the old Stone City walls from the Six Dynasties period, and reused many of the bricks from that old wall.

Originally, thirteen gates were built through Nanjing’s walls, but this number had grown to eighteen by the end of the Qing dynasty. Of the thirteen original gates, only in the south, originally known as Zhubao Gate, and Heping Gate in the north, originally called Shenci Gate, are still standing. Heping Gate is closed to the public as it is still used as an army barracks. Parts of other gates survive or have been partially reconstructed. The remains of a west gate, Hanzhongmen, originally called Shichengmen, stand in the middle of a plaza. These walls are part of the last of a series of three or four courtyards that made up the gate complex. During the Qing dynasty three more gates were added, including an entrance to Xuanwu Lake from the west built in 1910. Yijiang Gate on North Zhongshan Road was built in 1921, as was the major entrance to the city during Republican times when most visitors to the city arrived by boat at the docks just to the west. Additional gates were added in 1929, 1932 & 1954 to improve traffic and older gates were torn down for the same reason.


Different from ancient city walls in Beijing and Xi'an, its design and construction was unique and changed the old ways of equilibrium and symmetry. The construction concentrated on military defense because the city was at the foot of a mountain-- a natural barrier to control the commanding elevation with the river as its natural city moat. Because of this, the 60-square-kilometer Nanjing city became strategically located and difficult to reach.

Nanjing's city wall belonged to a military defensive system too. The difference was that it adopted a winding, free style, based on the city's complicated topography. Construction of the Beijing and the Xi'an city walls was in the ancient style of square or rectangular design. When it was built by the second son of Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, the dozen-kilometer long Xi'an city wall became the seat of local government. It could not match the scale of the capital Nanjing at that time.


Today the 600-year-old city wall of Nanjing still stands. Experts from Nanjing Cultural Relic Bureau say most of the foundations use granite, rectangle stones or limestone. The walls were packed layer by layer with broken bricks, gravel and yellow earth. All the brickwork joints were poured with mixed lime, water in which glutinous rice had been cooked and tong oil because the coagulated mixture was very strong. That is why the city wall has stood for a long time. On top of the outer wall were 13,616 crenellations, or battlements, for defenders of the city to observe the enemy or dodge arrows. Opposite it was the parapet wall used as a balustrade to keep the defenders and horses safe. Standing on the wall, you will see tall ancient trees under your feet. Aside the top wall there are stone sluices to drain rain and near the wall's foundation there are further outlets. This, perhaps, is another reason for its powerful foundation and defense projects. The ancient city wall was listed as a key cultural relic under state protection in 1988.

China National Highway 328

China National Highway 328 runs from Nanjing to Hai'an in Jiangsu. It is 295 kilometres in length and runs east from Nanjing, going through and Yangzhou.